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Biodiversity of phylloplane and endophytic fungi studied on the medicinal plant; Tinospora cordifolia
Bijaya Kumar Nayak
Phylloplane and endophytic fungi have been proven to be a rich source of novel natural compounds with a spectrum of biological activities and a high level of structure diversity on the leaf surfaces. Bioactive natural components produced by phylloplane and endophytes have shown promising potential and use fullness in safety and human health concerns. Taking advantage of modern biotechnology and microbial fermentation process we can better understand and manipulate this important microorganism resource and make it more beneficial for the mankind. In the present study isolation and enumeration of phylloplane and endophytic fungal diversity and host relationship based on two methodologies, agar plate and moist chamber was carried out. Altogether, 16 fungal species were isolated from the plant Tinospora cordifolia. Alternaria alternata, Aspergillus niger, Cladosporium herbarum, Penicillium chrysogenum and white sterile were the dominant fungal taxa among the recorded species. 9 fungal species were isolated from the medicinal plant by agar plate method and 12 species were recorded by moist chamber method. Aspergillus niger was recorded as endophytes and phylloplane fungi like Alternaria alternata, Cladosporium herbarum, white sterile mycelia and Penicillium chrysogenum. Penicillium citrinum, Fusarium sp., Bispora sp., Curvularia lunata and Eremascus albus were isolated only as endophytes but not present on leaf surfaces. Populospora sp. and Trichoderma harzianum were isolated as phylloplane fungi but not recorded as endophytes. The evidence for host-preference, tissue-specification and spatial heterogeneity was found in the phylloplane and endophytes distribution based on fungal community and composition and thus the fungi isolated are dependent on our methodologies. Key words: Biodiversity, Phylloplane, Endophytes, Medicinal plant, Tinospora cordifolia.[Full Text Article]